Promotional flyer for a Huerque Mapu concert in Argentina. Huerque Mapu was a folk group affiliated with the Montoneros, a left-wing Peronista guerrilla group that saw its highest activity around the turn of the 70s.
Posts tagged peronista
because if you look at actual politics and economics, classical Italian fascism looks a lot more like the right-wing of Peronismo—whose economic outlook was a capitalism based largely on the import-substitution-industrialization model + the giving of the middle finger to the comprador bourgeoisie—than it does to the Let’s-Just-Give-All-Our-Shit-To-The-Imperialists jubilee that was Chile’s military dictatorship. Fascism is a hypernationalist political and economic model, how can one be nationalist whilst handing over one’s national resources to foreign corporations?
Military dictatorship = fascism in the eyes of liberals only.
The problem is that many Western leftists have a very Eurocentric view of fascism, wherein we view it as a necessarily xenophobic and expansionist model because that’s the form it took in European countries which already had legacies of xenophobia and expansionism. As a result, we don’t look at its economic origins and how that outlook would be applied to Latin America; rather, fascism just becomes a keyword for “authoritarian,” “right-wing,” etc. and can describe figures as diverse as Dominican general Omar Torrijos, who helped the Sandinistas come to power in Nicaragua, and Rafael Videla, who was busy hunting down the Argentine leftists that helped kill the then-former Nicaraguan dictator Anastasio Somoza.
Unlike in Europe, fascism in Latin America has often had an anti-imperialist character and has aimed for the reclamation of national sovereignty, whereas the Europeans wanted to regain national power, often by colonizing the third world and occupying nearby countries. Latin American fascism largely aimed simply for the reorientation of national economies inward and—like Italy—the forced cooperation of necessarily-antagonistic social classes for the sake of national unity.*
This explains why, in Argentina, the oligarchy and comprador bourgeoisie hated Juan Peron. The oligarchs were usually owners of large latifundios, who retarded progress and national development by sitting on untilled lands or by effectively-enslaving wretchedly poor peasants to produce agricultural goods for export. They feared agrarian reform and land redistribution, which would severely weaken their traditional power. The comprador bourgeoisie, which orients itself outward, produced goods and extracted resources on behalf of, or in conjunction with, multinational corporations. Because Peron sought to restructure (read: not smash) the capitalist economy for the fulfillment of domestic needs, the compradors—who are principally allied to imperialism—feared government expropriations of natural resources that they were accustomed to extracting on behalf of foreign interests.
So yeah, moral of the story is that Latin American fascism has to be looked at in its own context, rather than assuming a European context and missing the point entirely.
*The logic behind the way real fascists crush proletarian revolutionary struggle is very different from how/why neoliberal military dictators do, and using “fascism” to describe every authoritarian that you don’t like blurs this distinction.
It’s also worth pointing out that Nazism, which created a central role for xenophobia and which had an economic philosophy far less state-centric than Italian fascism, responded to very different contradictions and found its support among a different socioeconomic strata. Whereas in Europe Nazism and fascism are seen as complementary, I would argue that the distinctions in Latin America are far more pronounced.
Marcha de Montoneros
SONG OF THE DAY: MOVIMIENTO PERONISTA MONTONERO - MARCHA DE MONTONEROS [ARGENTINA, 1970s]
“We are the shed blood of those comrades
that the people have not forgotten;
we will be free or dead but never slaves!”
While the history of the Argentine left confuses the shit out of me, I still find it fascinating. This song comes from the left-wing Montoneros, a revolutionary Peronist group in the 60s and 70s. To make a long story short, After Juan Peron was deposed by military coup in the 50s, a lot of groups from Marxist left to fascist right began claiming the mantle of Peronism (probably mostly out of opportunism). This was a contradiction that wasn’t helped by Peron, who, from exile in Franquista Spain, simultaneously praised his revolutionary allies as well as the anticommunist organizations that were hunting them down. When he returned from exile in the early 70s, right-wing Peronists ended up firing on leftists at the Ezeiza airport in Buenos Aires (injuring hundreds and killing at least 13), marking the definite split in the strange coalition and the institutional victory of the right-wing.
Here we’re checking out the anthem of the Montoneros, and it is freaking terrifying. Not to me of course, but I think a quick listen (it’s only like 2 minutes) on your part while demonstrate the value in revolutionary hymns that can scare the hell out of our enemies. Seriously, imagine if you’re a
n oligarchic piece of shit reactionary: At first you hear merely a muted buzz in the distance, a disturbance to your high tea requiring only an extra lump of sugar and a muffled “carajo…” under your breath. As the moments pass, a steady, uncomfortable tap imposes itself on your consciousness. You try to ignore the sound; perhaps it’s the plumbing, you say, or maybe the maids are walking too loudly. Every second that passes, however, begins to inform your better judgment that your deepest fears are being realized. The heartbeat of hundreds of thousands of approaching revolutionaries speeds up your own, the boiling blood of a militant people covers you in a heavy sweat. Thousands of voices in unison cry out for your demise, and they are asking permission of no one. “Dios mio…. estamos jodidos…”
Anyway, the politics of the Montoneros were really problematic (based on the little I know) but really, listen to this. Lyrics are below, English translation below that.
Llegó la hora, llegó ya compañero
la larga guerra por la liberación.
Patria en cenizas, patria del hombre nuevo,
nació una noche de pueblo montonero,
fecundó en tierra y ardió en revolución.
Es montonero, el grito es peronismo,
es la esperanza, tenemos que luchar.
Es montonero, el pueblo es el camino,
Perón o muerte, socialismo nacional.
Mi tierra en armas, mi tierra montonera
pondrá su pecho al yanqui imperialista
y será patria de obreros peronistas.
Somos la sangre de aquellos compañeros
ya derramada que el pueblo no ha olvidado,
libres o muertos pero jamás esclavos.
The time has come, it has come my comrade,
for the long war for our liberation.
The homeland in ashes, homeland of the new man,
born one night of the montonero people,
fertilized in the earth and engulfed in the revolution’s flame.
We are the Montoneros, our cry is Peronism,
it is the hope, we have to fight.
We are the Montoneros, ‘the people’ is the way,
Peron or death, national socialism
My land in arms, my montonera land,
will proudly confront the Yankee imperialist
and will become the homeland of Peronist workers
We are the shed blood of those comrades
that the people have not forgotten;
we will be free or dead but never slaves.